Iran Reached a Historic Nuclear Pact with US
An era begins in the Middle East. Iran and six international powers succeeded Tuesday in Vienna with an agreement that limits Iran’s nuclear program in exchange for a lifting of sanctions. In addition to ending 35 years of confrontation between Washington and Tehran, the agreement may reconfigure the geopolitical balance in a region shaken by violent extremism.
The regime of the ayatollahs preserves the ability to produce nuclear energy and legitimized in the concert of nations. The US president, Barrack Obama, slows access to Iranian atomic bomb and wins his international commitment made in 2009. The first result can be greater cooperation against Islamic jihadists State.
“We have slowed the spread of nuclear weapons in the Middle East,” Obama said in Washington. “This agreement gives us the opportunity to move in a new direction. We should seize it.”
Iranian President Hassan Rohani also wrote on Twitter, “It shows that constructive dialog works. Once resolved this unnecessary crisis will emerge new horizons to focus on shared challenges.
The agreement, by its regional reach, is comparable to Camp David in 1978, which sealed the peace between Egypt and Israel. It can also be compared to reconciliation between the United States and other historic enemy, China, in 1972. As he does with Cuba, Obama has sought in diplomacy and multilateralism key to frozen conflicts since the Cold War.
Finally, the accord come to the light which until recently was unthinkable see two enemies not just talking at the same table, but also reaching a common position. It has taken almost two years of negotiations, dozens of meetings between the Secretary of State, John Kerry, and the Iranian Foreign Minister Javad Zarif, repeated missed deadlines and a final effort of more than two weeks in the Austro-Hungarian palace Vienna.
After failing on three occasions-initially a self-imposed deadline to conclude the talks were of June 30, negotiators agreed on a text of about 100 pages: 20 of the basic document plus 80 annexes. The European Union, represented by Javier Solana first, then by Catherine Ashton, and Vienna by the head of European diplomacy, Federica Mogherini, he has played a key role in the process.
The immediate result is to prevent Vienna for at least ten years, Iran’s access to a nuclear bomb. It is not little. What the US and the international community has failed to call Pakistan or North Korea diplomatically -avoid them to join the club of nine countries with nuclear bomb they have succeeded with Iran.
The agreement stops, even temporarily, nuclear proliferation in one of the most unstable regions of the world. The UN will ensure that the Iranian reduce their ability to enrich uranium and plutonium-fuel needed to make the pump through a regime of intensive inspections. Iran achieved the highest part with sanctions any country that stand today, sanctions that isolated internationally and choked the economy.
Now the US Congress, Republican majority, has 60 days to review the final document, and then approve or reject it. The veto is irrevocable unless the opponents agree collect two-thirds vote.
Obama must also persuade the US partners in the Middle East. Israel, Saudi Arabia, and the Sunni monarchies are in Iran an existential threat and fear that thanks to its legitimacy against the USA to be strengthened.
Critics of the deal have accused Kerry of accepting excessive concessions: They note that Iran will maintain its capacity to enrich uranium, albeit reduced, and warn that, to get rid of sanctions, you will experience a boom that will expand its economic influence and military power.
The agreement does not mean full normalization of relations. Suspicions persist. For now neither it arises, as in the case of Cuba, a reset of diplomatic relations. Iran will continue, as Cuba until a few weeks ago in the list of the State Department of countries that sponsor terrorism. Assess the scope of the agreement will require months and probably years. The Vienna agreement is limited to the nuclear issue but it is possible that “catalyze” to use the word Zarif, a realignment of alliances and geopolitical balance in the Middle East.
For President Obama, the agreement in Vienna is one of those decisions that define a presidency; a break with the foreign policy of his country. The alternative, always said Obama during the months of negotiations, would have been tolerated nuclear Iran or war.